In order to obtain a correct temperature / humidity balance that allows people to enjoy closed environments in a pleasant way, proper planning is essential. The design of air-conditioning systems is of fundamental importance already in the preliminary phases of approach to the conception of the building, as it immediately determines binding architectural and structural choices (thickness of the perimeter walls, technical rooms, caves etc.). Therefore a correct preliminary design facilitates all the developments of the final and detailed design. The type of air conditioning system must be specifically structured on the basis of the characteristics of the building to be air-conditioned, be it of residential use, office use, commercial or artisanal use, of the required standards by opting for technical choices that, together with the first objectives, can also pursue a correct approach to the problems of costs, management and maintenance of the plants themselves.
Comfort and environmental well-being have become essential characteristics in the definition of quality of life. It is therefore essential to provide a correct design of the air conditioning systems in the rooms.
In addition to the comfort temperature / humidity, another factor of primary importance for obtaining good liveability in closed environments, is the health and freshness of the indoor air. Newly built buildings being increasingly isolated and watertight with respect to the external environment in order to limit energy consumption, they are subject to the problem of “pollution” of indoor air. The need for a ventilation system and air exchange is therefore of fundamental importance for the well-being of the “inhabitants” and their health, especially in rooms subject to a certain crowding, such as office rooms where there is often a high level of number of people per square meter In air replacement systems it is mandatory to use heat recovery units (of the static or thermodynamic type) in accordance with energy saving standards. The correct sizing of the ventilation systems and air exchange is of fundamental importance both for the choice of the technical rooms to be adopted and for the canalization routes in harmony with the architectural and structural choices.
The production of hot water and the distribution of hot or cold sanitary water are important factors in the preliminary design choices already mentioned above as they require dedicated spaces and distribution lines to be carefully evaluated in the preliminary phase. The production of hot water, the pressurization of water systems, the paths to be taken and the interference with all the other systems are decisive in the design choices and must be consistent with the objectives to be pursued without being invasive with respect to the architectural structure. The adoption of solar systems for the production of domestic hot water is of fundamental importance in compliance with the regulations on energy saving and the use of renewable sources. Exhaust systems for buildings and any lifting systems for underground floors form an integral part of mechanical systems serving the building.
The architectural design choices on building materials and routes for evacuation routes are closely linked to safeguarding people who, in the event of a fire, must leave the danger area. Fire extinguishing systems are decisive in safeguarding the building and its contents and their intervention must be timely and “safe” as they come into operation only in case of need. The correct design of these systems is in any case linked to their correct maintenance and in accordance with the current legislation.